Chapter 2 Indigenous youth and the criminal justice system: an overview : The critical need for early intervention High rates of offending and disadvantage Social norms and family dysfunction Connection to community and culture Health Education Employment Accommodation Overrepresentation and Closing the Gap The need for justice targets Over-Representation of Indigenous People in the Criminal Justice System: Some Conceptual and Explanatory Issues Chris Cunneen* Introduction1 They are the living example of a whole race of criminals, and have all the passions and all the vices of criminals (Cesare Lombroso, Crime: its Causes and Remedies, p 39). Explanations for this overrepresentation are both historical injustices, and the contemporary outcomes, faced by Indigenous Peoples and structural issues within the current criminal justice system. Criminal statistics show that people of muslim religion, black race, of male gender and of lower class are overrepresented in the criminal justice system and prison populations in particular. The increasing status of Indigenous overrepresentation is a clear indication of the failures of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Combatting Over-representation of Indigenous Youth in the Queensland Criminal Justice System through ‘Justice Reinvestment’ goals and which are evidenced based. Description. Overrepresentation of . Indigenous Youth Experience in the Criminal Justice System Given the historically exploitative relationship between Indigenous people and law enforcement, Indigenous youth possess a strong distrust of the legal system even before they personally have any interaction with it.19 This pre-existing fear and hatred, in conjunction with National data on Indigenous people in the criminal justice system includes data on self-reported victimization , police-reported homicide, and provincial/territorial and federal custody. The overrepresentation of Aboriginal youth in the Canadian justice system is clearly established as a historical and ongoing problem, indicative of the failure of the Canadian criminal justice system to meet the needs of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (Jackson, 1989; 2018 Oct;62(13):4067-4090. doi: 10.1177/0306624X18764524. Overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Perspectives of Indigenous young people The central purpose of this study was to provide a platform for Indigenous young peoples’ opinions regarding the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people in the criminal justice system. Canadian Criminal Justice System: Causes and Responses. The historical assimilation policies linked to Canada’s legacy of colonialism have held social, economic, and cultural repercussions for Indigenous communities. Both social and systemic issues contribute to this, including aspects of the justice system. The overrepresentation of Indigenous young people in the criminal justice system is one of Australia's most significant social problems. 11 One example of a JR project currently underway is the Maranguka Justice Reinvestment Project at Bourke in NSW that, inter alia, is looking to address issues with breaches of bail, outstanding warrants and unlicensed The increasing status of Indigenous overrepresentation is a clear indication of the failures of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Figures from the Justice Department paint a dark picture of the state of Indigenous incarceration, with aboriginal youth seriously overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Overrepresentation of Native Americans in the Justice System. These issues include over policing, ineffective representation, inadequate application of bail, and over sentencing, which are all indications of systemic racism. Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System When Indigenous youth come into contact with the criminal justice system, they are confronted with discriminatory assessments that increase their likelihood of being sentenced (Minaker and Hogeveen 2009). 2.0 Criminal justice system bias and amplification 3.0 Early life environmental influences 4.0 Overall summary and conclusions Indigenous people are overrepresented in Canada's criminal justice system as both victims and offenders. Overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Perspectives of Indigenous young people Carla Cesaroni, Chris Grol, and Kaitlin Fredericks Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 2018 52 : 1 , 111-128 They are exacerbated within the criminal justice system, where Indigenous youth encounter discriminatory barriers that have contributed towards their drastic overrepresentation among incarcerated youth populations. 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